Barista frothing milk

Espressos for Cappuccino and Caffe Latte

Espresso is the most demanding of all systems for brewing coffee. Not only does the slightest
error in brewing doom the cup, but this system, which extracts the flavor elements of a serving of
coffee in 15 to 20 intense seconds, exaggerates any flaw or imbalance in the coffee itself.
So an espresso blend must be subtle and balanced. On the other hand, espresso coffee in
the United States is asked to carry its rich, bittersweet message through large, sometimes
enormous, quantities of milk, not to mention assorted sweeteners and syrups. Thus, North
American espresso blends need to be powerful as well as subtle. This paradox — balance and
subtlety combined with power — is best achieved with blends of several different coffee origins,
although occasional coffees from a single origin, in the hands of a skillful roaster, can manage the
job nicely (witness this month’s Brazil Esteve “Safira” from Flying Goat Coffee).

A Milky Protocol

So here are the results of a systematic tasting of 20 espresso coffees (of which I report on 12)
designed by roast masters and blenders to be particularly suitable for milk-heavy espresso drinks
like cappuccino and caffé latte.
Although my tasting protocol for espresso has always involved tasting espresso both as a
straight shot and in milk, I elaborated the milk element of the protocol for this tasting. I sampled
these coffees in three stages: first as a single, straight shot (1.25-ounces including crema, 17-20
seconds after the first drop), next as a single shot mixed with one part hot (not frothed) milk, and
finally as a single shot mixed with three parts hot milk.
North American caffé lattes may add as much as six
or eight parts milk to coffee, but at that extreme level of dilution I find it difficult to determine
anything at all about the coffee itself. Readers who take their espresso in very large quantities of
milk should find the coffees I identify as effective in “big milk” good candidates for home brewing
regardless of the exact proportions of milk to coffee in their final drinks.

No Losers

Perhaps I was just lucky, or perhaps American roasters do better with espresso blends than with
single-origin drip coffees. For whatever reason, I found considerably less to complain about with
this set of coffees than with the typical set of drip coffees I cup. There were no thin-bodied,
burned coffees, no rubbery or faded coffees. The most common failings were either an excessive
sharpness in the small cup or a loss of authority in large quantities of milk. Seldom did a single
blend fail in both respects, which only suggests that the perfect balance of power and subtlety
is, as we might expect, difficult to achieve.
In a straight shot I looked for smooth, full body, enough sweetness to balance the usually
dominant bitterness of the coffee, plus some complexity or intrigue. In cappuccino-sized milk, I
hoped to experience a continuity of balance and complexity. In larger volumes of milk I mainly
looked for continued power and authority despite the rounding dilution of the milk. I didn’t
expect much complexity in big milk, but, surprisingly, I occasionally got it.

The Chocolate Factor

Not as in chocolate added to coffee, but as in the sweet, natural, delicately voluptuous chocolate
tones that virtually all good espresso blends achieve when mixed with hot milk. It is possible for
sharp, over-roasted espresso blends to miss the chocolate boat, but virtually none of these blends

Admirable Blender Strategies

These blends pursued a variety of often overlapping strategies to achieve a balance of power and
subtlety. Some relied on roasting high-grown, acidy coffees dark enough to achieve a sharp
bittersweetness. Others pursued body and authority by utilizing full-bodied, low-acid Brazils
brought to a moderate roast. In a handful of cases I thought I tasted (or felt) the heavy-bodied,
neutral presence of washed robustas. Several blends clearly used musty, rough-bottomed, often
mildly fermented coffees like Sumatras or Sulawesis to achieve body, persistence, and a milk-
penetrating nuance. At least one, probably more, used the depth- and body-enhancing effect of
India Monsooned Malabars, those India coffees that have been systematically exposed to
moisture-laden winds. Finally, I often detected the floral and fruit high notes gotten from the
discreet use of African coffees.
The fact that these blends pursued a variety of largely successful strategies to achieve
power and complexity, rather than simply roasting the oils out of high-grown, acidy Central
American coffees as was the common practice in American specialty some years ago, shows how
far American roasters have come in their understanding of espresso, and in their capacity to
produce a true American blend that neither imitates the languidly low-key espressos of Northern
Italy nor sears the palate with over-roasted bitterness, but is simultaneously expansive, subtle,
and powerful.

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About the Author:

Kenneth Davids is a coffee expert, author and co-founder of Coffee Review. He has been involved with coffee since the early 1970s and has published three books on coffee, including the influential Home Roasting: Romance and Revival, now in its second edition, and Coffee: A Guide to Buying, Brewing and Enjoying, which has sold nearly 250,000 copies over five editions. His workshops and seminars on coffee sourcing, evaluation and communication have been featured at professional coffee meetings on six continents.

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